11 Charles Riley, Germany Volkswagen fines $1.2 billion for the diesel scandal, CNN Money (June 13, 2018, 1:11 p.m.), money.cnn.com/2018/06/13/investing/volkswagen-fine-germany/index.html. 61 Jack Ewing, Alexandra Stevenson and Matthew Goldstein, former CEO of VW, were aware of Diesel Scheme Years Earlier Than He Admitted, S.E.C. Says, N.Y.Times (March 15, 2019) (Volkswagen`s position was that the plan to mislead U.S. regulators about the exhaust values of the company`s diesel vehicles was exclusively the work of lower-level employees, and… Senior executives were not aware of her until shortly before the [VW] publicly charged in September 15 www.nytimes.com/2019/03/15/business/volkswagen-winterkorn-sec-fraud.html; See also Ewing, note 5 above (VW initially told German customers that “we believe there is no legal basis for customer requests”); On 27 October 2015 in the European Parliament, “we now have the political impetus for a radical overhaul to ensure that car manufacturers cannot evade the rules,” said Catherine Bearder, MEP for the South-East of England, and defended a European resolution that specifically aimed at “reducing the deadly pollution caused by diesel vehicles”.  When the European Commission continued to pass laws, which gave the automotive industry more time to comply with the new regulations, while allowing cars to emit more than twice the legal limit for nitrogen oxides (NOx) from 2019 and up to 50% more from 2021, Bearder denounced as “a shameful mesh of national governments that once again present the interests of car manufacturers to public health”.  The United States also filed a separate complaint against VW for violating the Clean Air Act and conspiring to mislead the U.S. government. 56 Amended U.S. Complaint, see 21, 2. VW entered into a comparison with the US DOJ, in which it agreed to plead guilty and pay an additional $4.3 billion fine. 57 Rule 11 Pleading Agreement, above, Note 13, 13; Volkswagen press release, 13. In addition, the United States has separately charged former VW executives with criminal conspiracy charges.
58 Rule 11 Pleading Agreement, ins above. 13; Ewing, supra note 43. Supervisors in several countries began investigating Volkswagen and share prices fell by a third in the days immediately following the news. Martin Winterkorn, CEO of Volkswagen, has resigned, Heinz-Jakob Neusser, director of brand development, Ulrich Hackenberg, Audi`s director of research and development, and Wolfgang Hatz, Porsche`s director of research and development, have been suspended. Volkswagen announced in April 2016 that it would spend 16.2 billion euros ($18.32 billion at the April 2016 exchange rate)  to address exhaust problems and planned to re-release the affected vehicles as part of a recall. In January 2017, Volkswagen pleaded guilty and signed a statement of facts agreed upon based on the findings of an investigation commissioned by Volkswagen by U.S. attorneys Jones Day. The statement explained how engineers developed the shutdown devices because diesel models could not pass U.S. emissions tests without them and deliberately attempted to conceal their use.  In April 2017, a U.S.
federal judge fined Volkswagen $2.8 billion for seeing Volkswagen vehicles “manipulate diesel-powered vehicles to cheat during state emissions tests.”